Changeset 71066d8


Ignore:
Timestamp:
03/05/15 06:57:26 (2 months ago)
Author:
dlavigne <dru@…>
Branches:
master, releng/10.1.2
Children:
21a40e6
Parents:
ca67ae8
git-author:
dlavigne <dru@…> (03/05/15 06:57:10)
git-committer:
dlavigne <dru@…> (03/05/15 06:57:26)
Message:

More cleanup of control panel chapter.

Location:
docs
Files:
1 edited
34 moved

Legend:

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  • docs/controlpanel.rst

    r7cdd188 r71066d8  
    939939 
    940940Service Manager, seen in Figure 8.7a, provides a graphical utility for managing PC-BSD® services. 
    941 Buttons make it easy to start, stop, or restart services and to set the highlighted service to be enabled or disabled whenever the system boots. 
    942 To access this utility, go to PC-BSD® Control Panel ➜ Service Manager or type **pc-su pc-servicemanager**. 
    943 You will be prompted to your password. 
    944  
    945  
    946 By default, services will be listed alphabetically. 
    947 You can reorder the services by clicking on the “Service Name”, “Running”, or “Enabled” header. 
    948 Service Manager is a graphical front-end to the rc scripts located in */etc/rc.d*. 
    949  
    950 If you do not know what a service does, do not change its settings in Service Manager. 
    951 If you would like to learn more about a service, try seeing if there is a man page for it. 
    952 For example, type **man apm** or **man bootparamd**. 
    953 If a man page does not exist, try seeing what man pages are associated with that keyword. 
    954 For example:  
    955  
    956 apropos accounting 
    957  
    958 ac(8) - connect time accounting 
    959  
    960 acct(2) - enable or disable process accounting 
    961  
    962 acct(5) - execution accounting file 
    963  
    964 accton(8) - enable/disable system accounting 
    965  
    966 ipfw(4) - IP packet filter and traffic accounting 
    967  
    968 pac(8) - printer/plotter accounting information 
    969  
    970 pam_lastlog(8) - login accounting PAM module 
    971  
    972 sa(8) - print system accounting statistics 
    973  
    974 **Figure 8.****7****a: Managing Services Using Service Manager**  
    975  
    976 .. image:: images/picture_81.png 
     941 
     942**Figure 8.7a: Managing Services Using Service Manager**  
     943 
     944.. image:: images/service.png 
     945 
     946Buttons make it easy to start, stop, or restart services and to set the highlighted service to be enabled or disabled whenever the system boots. To access 
     947this utility, go to PC-BSD® :menuselection:`Control Panel --> Service Manager` or type :command:`pc-su pc-servicemanager`. You will be prompted for your 
     948password. 
     949 
     950By default, services will be listed alphabetically. You can reorder the services by clicking on the "Service Name", "Running", or "Enabled" headers. Service 
     951Manager is a graphical front-end to the rc scripts located in :file:`/etc/rc.d`. 
     952 
     953If you do not know what a service does, do not change its settings in Service Manager. If you would like to learn more about a service, try seeing if there is 
     954a man page for it. For example, type :command:`man apm` or :command:`man bootparamd`. If a man page does not exist, try seeing what man pages are associated 
     955with that keyword. For example:: 
     956 
     957 apropos accounting 
     958 ac(8) - connect time accounting 
     959 acct(2) - enable or disable process accounting 
     960 acct(5) - execution accounting file 
     961 accton(8) - enable/disable system accounting 
     962 ipfw(4) - IP packet filter and traffic accounting 
     963 pac(8) - printer/plotter accounting information 
     964 pam_lastlog(8) - login accounting PAM module 
     965 sa(8) - print system accounting statistics 
    977966 
    978967.. index:: configuration 
     
    982971============== 
    983972 
    984 This section describes the various tasks that can be performed using the graphical System Manager utility. 
    985 System Manager can be accessed from Control Panel ➜ System Manager or by typing pc-su **pc-sysmanager**. 
    986 You will be prompted to input your password. 
     973This section describes the various tasks that can be performed using the graphical System Manager utility. System Manager can be accessed from 
     974:menuselection:`Control Panel --> System Manager` or by typing pc-su :command:`pc-sysmanager`. You will be prompted to input your password. 
    987975 
    988976.. index:: system manager 
     
    992980------------ 
    993981 
    994 The “General” tab, shown in Figure 8.8a, displays the following system information:  
    995  
    996 - the version numbers for the PC-BSD® base and its command-line and graphical utilities 
    997  
    998 - the version of the underlying FreeBSD base  
    999  
    1000 - the CPU type and speed  
    1001  
    1002 - the amount of physical memory  
    1003  
    1004 Figure 8.8a: General Tab of System Manager Utility 
    1005  
    1006 .. image:: images/picture_71.png 
    1007  
    1008 The “Generate” button can be used to create a report that includes the following items:  
    1009  
    1010 - a listing of the installed components and their versions 
    1011  
    1012 - the output of the **dmesg** command, which shows messages from the kernel  
    1013  
    1014 - the last few lines of the */var/log/messages* log file  
    1015  
    1016 - the output of the **pciconf -lv** command, which lists all the devices that were found when the system booted  
    1017  
    1018 - your X configuration file, which shows your display settings  
    1019  
    1020 - your */etc/rc.conf* file, which shows your startup settings  
    1021  
    1022 - your */boot/loader.conf* file, which shows which drivers are loaded at boot time  
    1023  
    1024 - the output of the command **df -m**, which shows your amount of free disk space  
    1025  
    1026 - a listing from the **top** command, which shows the currently running processes  
    1027  
    1028 When you click the “Generate” button, you will be prompted to input the name and location of the text file that will be created. 
    1029 Since it is a text file, you can view its contents in any text editor. 
    1030 When troubleshooting your system, this file is handy to include when . 
     982The "General" tab, shown in Figure 8.8a, displays the following system information:  
     983 
     984* the version numbers for the PC-BSD® base and its command-line and graphical utilities 
     985 
     986* the version of the underlying FreeBSD base  
     987 
     988* the CPU type and speed  
     989 
     990* the amount of physical memory  
     991 
     992**Figure 8.8a: General Tab of System Manager Utility** 
     993 
     994.. image:: images/system1.png 
     995 
     996The "Generate" button can be used to create a report that includes the following items:  
     997 
     998* a listing of the installed components and their versions 
     999 
     1000* the output of the :command:`dmesg` command, which shows messages from the kernel  
     1001 
     1002* the last few lines of the :file:`/var/log/messages` log file  
     1003 
     1004* the output of the :command:`pciconf -lv` command, which lists all the devices that were found when the system booted  
     1005 
     1006* your X configuration file, which shows your display settings  
     1007 
     1008* your :file:`/etc/rc.conf` file, which shows your startup settings  
     1009 
     1010* your :file:`/boot/loader.conf` file, which shows which drivers are loaded at boot time  
     1011 
     1012* the output of the command :command:`df -m`, which shows your amount of free disk space  
     1013 
     1014* a listing from the :command:`top` command, which shows the currently running processes  
     1015 
     1016When you click the "Generate" button, you will be prompted to input the name and location of the text file that will be created. Since it is a text file, you 
     1017can view its contents in any text editor. When troubleshooting your system, this file is handy to include when you :ref:`Report a bug`. 
    10311018 
    10321019.. index:: system manager 
     
    10361023---------- 
    10371024 
    1038 During the installation of PC-BSD® you had an opportunity to install FreeBSD source and ports. 
    1039 If you did not and wish to do so after installation, use the “Tasks” tab of System Manager, shown in Figure 8.8b. 
    1040  
    1041 Figure 8.8b: Tasks Tab of the System Manager Utility 
    1042  
    1043 .. image:: images/picture_61.png 
    1044  
    1045 This tab provides a graphical interface for installing system source or the ports tree using **git**. 
    1046  
    1047  
    1048 If you click the “Fetch PC-BSD System Source” button, a progress screen will indicate that sources are being downloaded to */usr/src/.* Once the download is complete, a “Finished!” message will appear and you can click the “Close” button to exit this screen. 
    1049  
    1050  
    1051 If you click the “Fetch PC-BSD Ports Tree” button, a message will indicate that ports are being fetched and will indicate when this is complete by adding a “Finished!” message to the lower left corner of the message. 
    1052 Ports will be installed to */usr/ports/*. 
     1025During the installation of PC-BSD® you had an opportunity to install FreeBSD source and ports. If you did not and wish to do so after installation, use the 
     1026"Tasks" tab of System Manager, shown in Figure 8.8b. 
     1027 
     1028**Figure 8.8b: Tasks Tab of the System Manager Utility** 
     1029 
     1030.. image:: images/system2.png 
     1031 
     1032This tab provides a graphical interface for installing system source or the ports tree using :command:`git`. 
     1033 
     1034If you click the "Fetch PC-BSD System Source" button, a progress screen will indicate that sources are being downloaded to :file:`/usr/src/`. Once the 
     1035download is complete, a "Finished!" message will appear and you can click the "Close" button to exit this screen. 
     1036 
     1037If you click the "Fetch PC-BSD Ports Tree" button, a message will indicate that ports are being fetched and will indicate when this is complete by adding a 
     1038"Finished!" message to the lower left corner of the message. Ports will be installed to :file:`/usr/ports/`. 
    10531039 
    10541040.. index:: system manager 
     
    10581044--------- 
    10591045 
    1060 The “Misc” tab of System Manager is seen in Figure 8.8c. 
    1061  
    1062 This tab contains a checkbox to “Force IBUS keyboard input”. Check this box if you wish to to input Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Indic characters using a Latin keyboard. 
    1063  
    1064  
    1065 **Figure 8.****8****c: Misc Tab of the System Manager Utility** 
    1066  
    1067 .. image:: images/picture_124.png 
     1046The "Misc" tab of System Manager is seen in Figure 8.8c. 
     1047 
     1048**Figure 8.8c: Misc Tab of the System Manager Utility** 
     1049 
     1050.. image:: images/system3.png 
     1051 
     1052This tab contains a checkbox to "Force IBUS keyboard input". Check this box if you wish to to input Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Indic characters using a 
     1053Latin keyboard. 
    10681054 
    10691055.. index:: configuration 
     
    10731059============ 
    10741060 
    1075 The PC-BSD® User Manager utility allows you to easily add and delete users and groups, as well as change a user's or the administrative password. 
    1076 To access this utility, go to Control Panel ➜ User Manager or type **pc-su pc-usermanager.** You will need to input your password in order to access this utility. 
     1061The PC-BSD® User Manager utility allows you to easily add and delete users and groups, as well as change a user's or the administrative password. To access 
     1062this utility, go to :menuselection:`Control Panel --> User Manager` or type :command:`pc-su pc-usermanager`. You will need to input your password in order to 
     1063access this utility. 
    10771064 
    10781065.. index:: users 
     
    10821069---------------------- 
    10831070 
    1084 In the example shown in Figure 8.9a, the system has two user accounts. 
    1085 The *dru* account has the ability to become the superuser as the “Can administrate system” checkbox is checked. 
    1086  
    1087  
    1088 If you click the “Remove” button for a highlighted user, a pop-up menu will ask if you would like to also delete the user's home directory (along with all of their files). 
    1089 If you click “No”, the user will still be deleted but their home directory will remain. 
    1090 If you have only created one user account, the “Remove” button will be greyed out as you need at least one user to be able to login to the PC-BSD® system. 
    1091  
    1092  
    1093 **NOTE:** while a removed user will no longer be listed, the user account will not actually be deleted until you click the “Apply” button. 
    1094 A pop-up message will indicate that you have pending changes if you close User Manager without clicking “Apply”. If you change your mind, click “No” and the user account will not be deleted; otherwise, click “Yes” and the user will be deleted and User Manager will close. 
    1095  
    1096  
    1097 The password for any user can be changed by first highlighting the user name then clicking the “Change Password” button. 
    1098 You will not be prompted for the old password in order to reset a user's password; this can be handy if a user has forgotten their password and can no longer log into the PC-BSD® system. 
    1099 If you click the “Change Admin Password” button, you can change the root user's password. 
    1100  
    1101  
    1102 Figure 8.9a: Viewing User Accounts in User Manager 
    1103  
    1104 .. image:: images/picture_272.png 
    1105  
    1106 If you click the “Advanced View” button, this screen will change to show all of the accounts on the system, not just the user accounts that you created. 
    1107 An example is seen in Figure 8.9b.  
    1108  
    1109 The accounts that you did not create are known as system accounts and are needed by the operating system or installed applications. 
    1110 You should not delete any accounts that you did not create yourself as doing so may cause a previously working application to stop working. 
    1111 Advanced View provides additional information associated with each account, such as the user ID number, full name (description), home directory, default shell, and primary group. 
    1112 System accounts usually have a shell of *nologin* for security reasons, meaning that an attacker can not try to login to the system using that account name. 
    1113  
    1114  
    1115 Figure 8.9c shows the add user account creation screen that opens when you click the “Add” button. 
    1116  
    1117  
    1118 **NOTE:** if you click the “Add” button while in Simple View, you will only be prompted to enter the username, full name, password, and to optionally encrypt that user's files. 
    1119  
    1120  
    1121 Figure 8.9b: Viewing All Accounts and Their Details 
    1122  
    1123 .. image:: images/picture_175.png 
    1124  
    1125 **Figure 8.****9****c: Creating a New User Account**  
    1126  
    1127 .. image:: images/picture_63.png 
     1071In the example shown in Figure 8.9a, the system has two user accounts. The *dru* account has the ability to become the superuser as the "Can administrate 
     1072system" checkbox is checked. 
     1073 
     1074**Figure 8.9a: Viewing User Accounts in User Manager** 
     1075 
     1076.. image:: images/user1.png 
     1077 
     1078If you click the "Remove" button for a highlighted user, a pop-up menu will ask if you would like to also delete the user's home directory (along with all of 
     1079their files). If you click "No", the user will still be deleted but their home directory will remain. If you have only created one user account, the "Remove" 
     1080button will be greyed out as you need at least one user to be able to login to the PC-BSD® system. 
     1081 
     1082.. note:: while a removed user will no longer be listed, the user account will not actually be deleted until you click the "Apply" button. A pop-up message 
     1083   will indicate that you have pending changes if you close User Manager without clicking "Apply". If you change your mind, click "No" and the user account 
     1084   will not be deleted; otherwise, click "Yes" and the user will be deleted and User Manager will close. 
     1085 
     1086The password for any user can be changed by first highlighting the user name then clicking the "Change Password" button. You will not be prompted for the old 
     1087password in order to reset a user's password; this can be handy if a user has forgotten their password and can no longer log into the PC-BSD® system. If you 
     1088click the "Change Admin Password" button, you can change the root user's password. 
     1089 
     1090If you click the "Advanced View" button, this screen will change to show all of the accounts on the system, not just the user accounts that you created. An 
     1091example is seen in Figure 8.9b.  
     1092 
     1093**Figure 8.9b: Viewing All Accounts and Their Details** 
     1094 
     1095.. image:: images/user2.png 
     1096 
     1097The accounts that you did not create are known as system accounts and are needed by the operating system or installed applications. You should **not** delete 
     1098any accounts that you did not create yourself as doing so may cause a previously working application to stop working. "Advanced View" provides additional 
     1099information associated with each account, such as the user ID number, full name (description), home directory, default shell, and primary group. System 
     1100accounts usually have a shell of *nologin* for security reasons, meaning that an attacker can not try to login to the system using that account name. 
     1101 
     1102Figure 8.9c shows the add user account creation screen that opens when you click the "Add" button. 
     1103 
     1104.. note:: if you click the "Add" button while in "Simple View", you will only be prompted to enter the username, full name, and password. 
     1105 
     1106**Figure 8.9c: Creating a New User Account**  
     1107 
     1108.. image:: images/user3.png 
    11281109 
    11291110This screen is used to input the following information when adding a new user or system account:  
    11301111 
    1131 **Full Name: **this field provides a description of the account and can contain spaces. 
    1132 If it is a user account, use the person's first and last name. 
    1133 If it is a system account, input a description to remind you which application uses the account. 
    1134  
    1135  
    1136 **Username:** the name the user will use when they log in to the system; it is case sensitive and can not contain any spaces. 
    1137 If you are creating a system account needed by an application, use the name provided by the application's installation instructions. 
    1138 If the name that you choose already exists as an account, it will be highlighted in red and the utility will prompt you to use another name. 
    1139  
    1140  
    1141 **Home Directory:** leave this field empty for a user account as the system will automatically create a ZFS dataset for the user's home directory under */usr/home/username*. 
    1142 However, if you are creating a system account it is important to override this default by typing in */var/empty* or */nonexistent* unless the application's installation instructions specify that the account needs a specific home directory. 
    1143  
    1144  
    1145 **Shell:** this drop-down menu contains the shells that are available to users when they are at a command prompt. 
    1146 You can either keep the default or select a shell which the user prefers. 
    1147  
    1148  
    1149 **Primary Group:** if you leave the default button of “New Group” selected, a group will be created with the same name as the user. 
    1150 This is usually what you want unless you are creating a system account and the installation instructions specify a different group name. 
    1151 Note that the drop-down menu for specifying a group name will only show existing groups, but you can quickly create a group using the “Groups” tab. 
    1152  
     1112**Full Name:** this field provides a description of the account and can contain spaces. If it is a user account, use the person's first and last name. If it 
     1113is a system account, input a description to remind you which application uses the account. 
     1114 
     1115**Username:** the name the user will use when they log in to the system; it is case sensitive and can not contain any spaces. If you are creating a system 
     1116account needed by an application, use the name provided by the application's installation instructions. If the name that you choose already exists as an 
     1117account, it will be highlighted in red and the utility will prompt you to use another name. 
     1118 
     1119**Home Directory:** leave this field empty for a user account as the system will automatically create a ZFS dataset for the user's home directory under 
     1120:file:`/usr/home/username`. However, if you are creating a system account it is important to override this default by typing in :file:`/var/empty` or 
     1121:file:`/nonexistent` unless the application's installation instructions specify that the account needs a specific home directory. 
     1122 
     1123**Shell:** this drop-down menu contains the shells that are available to users when they are at a command prompt. You can either keep the default or select a 
     1124shell which the user prefers. 
     1125 
     1126**Primary Group:** if you leave the default button of "New Group" selected, a group will be created with the same name as the user. This is usually what you 
     1127want unless you are creating a system account and the installation instructions specify a different group name. Note that the drop-down menu for specifying a 
     1128group name will only show existing groups, but you can quickly create a group using the "Groups" tab. 
    11531129 
    11541130**Password:** the password is case-sensitive and needs to be confirmed. 
    11551131 
    1156  
    1157 Once you have made your selections, press the “Save” button to create the account. 
     1132Once you have made your selections, press the "Save" button to create the account. 
    11581133 
    11591134.. index:: users 
     
    11631138--------------- 
    11641139 
    1165 If you click the “Groups” tab, you can view all of the groups on the system, as seen in Figure 8.9d.  
     1140If you click the "Groups" tab, you can view all of the groups on the system, as seen in Figure 8.9d.  
     1141 
     1142**Figure 8.9d: Managing Groups Using User Manager**  
     1143 
     1144.. image:: images/user4.png 
    11661145 
    11671146This screen has 3 columns:  
     
    11691148**Groups:** shows all of the groups on the system. 
    11701149 
    1171  
    11721150**Available:** shows all of the system and user accounts on the system in alphabetical order. 
    11731151 
    1174  
    11751152**Members:** indicates if the highlighted group contains any user accounts. 
    11761153 
    1177  
    1178 To add an account to a group, highlight the group name in the first column. 
    1179 Then, highlight the account name in the “Available” column. 
    1180 Click the right arrow and the selected account will appear in the “Members” column. 
    1181 You should only add user accounts to groups that you create yourself or when an application's installation instructions indicate that an account needs to be added to a group. 
    1182  
    1183  
    1184 If you click the “Add” button, a pop-up menu will prompt you for the name of the new group. 
    1185 Once you press “OK”, the group will be added to the “Groups” column. 
    1186  
    1187  
    1188 If you click the “Remove” button, the highlighted group will automatically be deleted after you press the “Apply” button, so be sure to do this with care. 
     1154To add an account to a group, highlight the group name in the first column. Then, highlight the account name in the "Available" column. Click the right arrow 
     1155and the selected account will appear in the "Members" column. You should only add user accounts to groups that you create yourself or when an application's 
     1156installation instructions indicate that an account needs to be added to a group. 
     1157 
     1158If you click the "Add" button, a pop-up menu will prompt you for the name of the new group. Once you press "OK", the group will be added to the "Groups" 
     1159column. 
     1160 
     1161If you click the "Remove" button, the highlighted group will automatically be deleted after you press the "Apply" button, so be sure to do this with care. 
    11891162Again, do not remove any groups that you did not create yourself or applications that used to work may stop working. 
    1190  
    1191  
    1192 **Figure 8.****9****d: Managing Groups Using User Manager**  
    1193  
    1194 .. image:: images/picture_260.png 
    11951163 
    11961164.. index:: configuration 
     
    12001168============ 
    12011169 
    1202 The PC-BSD® Disk Manager can be used to manage ZFS pools and datasets as well as the disks attached to the system. 
    1203 To access this utility, use Control Panel → Disk Manager or type **pc-su pc-zmanager** from within an xterm. 
    1204 You will need to input your password in order to access this utility. 
     1170The PC-BSD® Disk Manager can be used to manage ZFS pools and datasets as well as the disks attached to the system. To access this utility, use 
     1171:menuselection:`Control Panel --> Disk Manager` or type :command:`pc-su pc-zmanager` from within an xterm. You will need to input your password in order to 
     1172access this utility. 
    12051173 
    12061174.. index:: disk manager 
     
    12101178--------------------- 
    12111179 
    1212 As seen in the example in Figure 8.10a, the utility will open in the “ZFS Filesystems” tab and will display the system's ZFS datasets, the amount of space available to each dataset, and the amount of space each dataset is using. 
    1213  
    1214 Figure 8.10a: Viewing the System's ZFS Datasets 
    1215  
    1216 .. image:: images/picture_36.png 
    1217  
    1218 The name of the pool in this example is *tank*. 
    1219 If the system has multiple pools, click the green arrow to select the desired pool. 
    1220  
     1180As seen in the example in Figure 8.10a, the utility will open in the "ZFS Filesystems" tab and will display the system's ZFS datasets, the amount of space 
     1181available to each dataset, and the amount of space each dataset is using. 
     1182 
     1183**Figure 8.10a: Viewing the System's ZFS Datasets** 
     1184 
     1185.. image:: images/disk1.png 
     1186 
     1187The name of the pool in this example is *tank*. If the system has multiple pools, click the green arrow to select the desired pool. 
    12211188 
    12221189If you right-click the pool name, the following options are available:  
    12231190 
    1224 - **Mount:** whether or not the filesystem can be mounted depends upon the value of the “canmount” property of the dataset. 
    1225  
    1226 - **Create new dataset:** Figure 8.10b shows the options that are available when you create a new dataset. 
    1227    
    1228  
    1229 - **Create a clone dataset:** creates a copy of the dataset. 
    1230  
    1231 - **Take a snapshot:** will prompt for the name of the snapshot. 
    1232   The field is pink to remind you to type the snapshot name in immediately after the pool name and *@* symbol. 
    1233   In this example, *tank@* will be displayed in the name field. 
    1234   An example snapshot name could be *tank@snapshot1* or *tank@201312031353* to denote the date and time the snapshot was created. 
    1235   The snapshot creation will be instantaneous and the new snapshot will be added to the list of datasets and will have a camera icon. 
    1236   Click the entry for the snapshot entry if you wish to rename it, clone it, destroy it, rollback the system to that point in time, or edit its properties. 
    1237   If you forget when you made the snapshot, pick “Edit properties” from the snapshot's right-click menu as it will show its “creation” property. 
    1238    
    1239  
    1240 - **Edit properties:** allows you modify the ZFS properties for the pool, as seen in the example shown in Figure 8.10c. The available options depend upon the property being modified. 
    1241   The options which are read-only will have a red minus sign icon next to them. 
    1242   ZFS options are described in **man zfs** and you should not change any options unless you are familiar with the ramifications of doing so. 
    1243    
    1244  
    1245 **Figure 8.1****0****b: Creating a New ZFS Dataset**  
    1246  
    1247 .. image:: images/picture_113.png 
    1248  
    1249 When creating a new dataset or clone, the following options are available. 
    1250 Again, these options are described in **man zfs** and you should not change any options unless you are familiar with the ramifications of doing so. 
    1251  
    1252  
    1253 - **Name:** this field is pink as a reminder to type in the dataset name immediately after the trailing “/” of the displayed pool name. 
    1254    
    1255  
    1256 - **Prevent auto mount:** if the box is checked, the dataset will not be mounted at boot time and must instead be manually mounted as needed. 
    1257    
    1258  
    1259 - **Mountpoint:** choices are *none*, *legacy*, or *[path]*. 
    1260    
    1261  
    1262 - **Force UTF-8 only:** if checked, you will not be able to save any filenames that are not in the UTF-8 character code set. 
    1263    
    1264  
    1265 - **Unicode normalization:** if checked, indicate whether unicode normalization should occur when comparing filenames, and if so, which normalization algorithm to use. 
    1266   Choices are *none*, *formD*, or *formKCF*. 
    1267    
    1268  
    1269 - **Copies:** if checked, indicates the number of copies (0 to 3) of data to store in the dataset. 
    1270   The copies are in addition to any redundancy and are stored on different disks when possible. 
    1271    
    1272  
    1273 - **Deduplication:** enables deduplication. 
    1274   **Do not**** **enable this option if the system has less than the minimum recommended 5GB of RAM per TB of storage to be deduplicated. 
    1275    
    1276  
    1277 - **Compression:** if checked and a compression algorithm is selected in the drop-down menu, data will automatically be compressed as it is written and uncompressed as it is read. 
    1278   The algorithm determines the amount and speed of compression, where typically increased compression results in decreased speed. 
     1191* **Mount:** whether or not the filesystem can be mounted depends upon the value of the "canmount" property of the dataset. 
     1192 
     1193* **Create new dataset:** Figure 8.10b shows the options that are available when you create a new dataset. 
     1194 
     1195* **Create a clone dataset:** creates a copy of the dataset. 
     1196 
     1197* **Take a snapshot:** will prompt for the name of the snapshot. The field is pink to remind you to type the snapshot name in immediately after the pool name 
     1198  and *@* symbol. In this example, *tank@* will be displayed in the name field. An example snapshot name could be *tank@snapshot1* or *tank@201312031353* to 
     1199  denote the date and time the snapshot was created. The snapshot creation will be instantaneous and the new snapshot will be added to the list of datasets 
     1200  and will have a camera icon. Click the entry for the snapshot entry if you wish to rename it, clone it, destroy it, rollback the system to that point in 
     1201  time, or edit its properties. If you forget when you made the snapshot, pick "Edit properties" from the snapshot's right-click menu as it will show its 
     1202  "creation" property. 
     1203 
     1204* **Edit properties:** allows you modify the ZFS properties for the pool, as seen in the example shown in Figure 8.10c. The available options depend upon the 
     1205  property being modified. The options which are read-only will have a red minus sign icon next to them. ZFS options are described in :command:`man zfs` and  
     1206  you should not change any options unless you are familiar with the ramifications of doing so. 
     1207 
     1208**Figure 8.10b: Creating a New ZFS Dataset**  
     1209 
     1210.. image:: images/disk2.png 
     1211 
     1212**Figure 8.10c: Editing the Pool's ZFS Properties**  
     1213 
     1214.. image:: images/disk3.png 
     1215 
     1216When creating a new dataset or clone, the following options are available. Again, these options are described in :command:`man zfs` and you should not change 
     1217any options unless you are familiar with the ramifications of doing so. 
     1218 
     1219* **Name:** this field is pink as a reminder to type in the dataset name immediately after the trailing "/" of the displayed pool name. 
     1220 
     1221* **Prevent auto mount:** if the box is checked, the dataset will not be mounted at boot time and must instead be manually mounted as needed. 
     1222 
     1223* **Mountpoint:** choices are *none*, *legacy*, or *[path]*. 
     1224 
     1225* **Force UTF-8 only:** if checked, you will not be able to save any filenames that are not in the UTF-8 character code set. 
     1226 
     1227* **Unicode normalization:** if checked, indicate whether unicode normalization should occur when comparing filenames, and if so, which normalization 
     1228  algorithm to use. Choices are *none*, *formD*, or *formKCF*. 
     1229 
     1230* **Copies:** if checked, indicates the number of copies (0 to 3) of data to store in the dataset. The copies are in addition to any redundancy and are stored 
     1231  on different disks when possible. 
     1232 
     1233* **Deduplication:** enables deduplication. 
     1234  **Do not** enable this option if the system has less than the minimum recommended 5GB of RAM per TB of storage to be deduplicated. 
     1235 
     1236- **Compression:** if checked and a compression algorithm is selected in the drop-down menu, data will automatically be compressed as it is written and 
     1237  uncompressed as it is read. The algorithm determines the amount and speed of compression, where typically increased compression results in decreased speed. 
    12791238  The *lz4* algorithm is recommended as it provides very good compression at near real-time speed. 
    1280    
    1281  
    1282 **Figure 8.1****0****c: Editing the Pool's ZFS Properties**  
    1283  
    1284 .. image:: images/picture_132.png 
    12851239 
    12861240.. index:: disk manager 
     
    12901244--------------------- 
    12911245 
    1292 To view the status of the ZFS pools and the disk(s) in the pool, click the “ZFS Pools” tab. 
    1293 In the example, shown in Figure 8.10d, the ZFS pool named *tank* was created from one disk. 
    1294 The state of “Online” indicates that the pool is healthy. 
    1295  
    1296  
    1297 **Figure 8.1****0****d: Viewing the Status of the ZFS Pool**  
    1298  
    1299 .. image:: images/picture_2.png 
     1246To view the status of the ZFS pools and the disk(s) in the pool, click the "ZFS Pools" tab. In the example, shown in Figure 8.10d, the ZFS pool named *tank* 
     1247was created from one disk. The state of "Online" indicates that the pool is healthy. 
     1248 
     1249**Figure 8.10d: Viewing the Status of the ZFS Pool**  
     1250 
     1251.. image:: images/disk4.png 
    13001252 
    13011253If you right-click the pool, which is named *tank* in this example, the following options are available:  
    13021254 
    1303 - **Create new pool:** use this option if additional disks are available and you would like to create another pool instead of adding them to the existing pool. 
    1304   This will open a screen that allows you to name the new pool, select which additional disks will go into it, and select how to configure the disks. 
    1305    
    1306  
    1307 - **Rename pool:** will prompt you to input the new name for the pool. 
    1308    
    1309  
    1310 - **Destroy pool:** **do not select this option unless you want to destroy all of the data on the disks.**** ** 
    1311  
    1312 - **Add devices:** depending upon the type of disk configuration, you may be able to extend the size of the pool by adding an equal number of disks. 
    1313    
    1314  
    1315 - **Add log devices:** used to add an SSD or disk as a secondary ZIL. 
    1316  
    1317 - **Add cache devices:** used to add an SSD or disk as an L2ARC. 
    1318  
    1319 - **Add spare devices:** at this time, FreeBSD does not support hot spares. 
    1320  
    1321 - **Scrub:** will start a ZFS scrub now. 
    1322   This option can be I/O intensive so it isn't recommended to do this while the system is in use. 
    1323    
    1324  
    1325 - **Export pool:** this action should be performed if you will be physically moving the disks from one system to another. 
    1326  
    1327 - **Properties:** used to manage the default properties of the pool. 
    1328   Datasets inherit the default properties, unless a property is set to a different value on the dataset. 
     1255* **Create new pool:** use this option if additional disks are available and you would like to create another pool instead of adding them to the existing 
     1256  pool. This will open a screen that allows you to name the new pool, select which additional disks will go into it, and select how to configure the disks. 
     1257 
     1258* **Rename pool:** will prompt you to input the new name for the pool. 
     1259 
     1260* **Destroy pool:** **do not select this option unless you want to destroy all of the data on the disks.** 
     1261 
     1262* **Add devices:** depending upon the type of disk configuration, you may be able to extend the size of the pool by adding an equal number of disks. 
     1263 
     1264* **Add log devices:** used to add an SSD or disk as a secondary ZIL. 
     1265 
     1266* **Add cache devices:** used to add an SSD or disk as an L2ARC. 
     1267 
     1268* **Add spare devices:** at this time, FreeBSD does not support hot spares. 
     1269 
     1270* **Scrub:** will start a ZFS scrub now. This option can be I/O intensive so it isn't recommended to do this while the system is in use. 
     1271 
     1272* **Export pool:** this action should be performed if you will be physically moving the disks from one system to another. 
     1273 
     1274* **Properties:** used to manage the default properties of the pool. Datasets inherit the default properties, unless a property is set to a different value on 
     1275  the dataset. 
    13291276 
    13301277If you right-click a disk entry, such as *ad0s1a* in this example, the following options are available:  
    13311278 
    1332 - **Attach (mirror) device:** if you wish to mirror additional disk(s), this option will open a screen which allows you to specify the disk(s) to add. 
    1333  
    1334 - **Take offline:** if you need to replace a bad disk, select this option before physically removing the disk. 
     1279* **Attach (mirror) device:** if you wish to mirror additional disk(s), this option will open a screen which allows you to specify the disk(s) to add. 
     1280 
     1281* **Take offline:** if you need to replace a bad disk, select this option before physically removing the disk. 
    13351282 
    13361283.. index:: disk manager 
     
    13401287--------------- 
    13411288 
    1342 An example of the “Disks” tab is seen in Figure 8.10e. 
    1343  
    1344 Figure 8.10e: Managing Disks 
    1345  
    1346 .. image:: images/picture_114.png 
    1347  
    1348 This screen shows the size of each disk as well as the partitioning scheme. 
    1349 If an unformatted disk or free disk space is available, right-click the device to format it. 
     1289An example of the "Disks" tab is seen in Figure 8.10e. 
     1290 
     1291**Figure 8.10e: Managing Disks** 
     1292 
     1293.. image:: images/disk5.png 
     1294 
     1295This screen shows the size of each disk as well as the partitioning scheme. If an unformatted disk or free disk space is available, right-click the device to 
     1296format it. 
    13501297 
    13511298.. index:: configuration 
     
    13551302======= 
    13561303 
    1357 Control Panel ➜ Display can be used to configure the system to run the display wizard the next time the system boots. 
    1358 This allows you to reconfigure your video driver and display settings. 
    1359  
    1360  
    1361 **NOTE:** if you have an NVIDIA card, double-check that “pcbsd-meta-nvidia” is installed in  and install it if it is not. 
    1362 To check for this driver, check the “Raw Packages” box in “Browser View” and search for “nvidia”.  
     1304:menuselection:`Control Panel --> Display` can be used to configure the system to run the display wizard the next time the system boots. This allows you to 
     1305reconfigure your video driver and display settings. 
     1306 
     1307.. note:: if you have an NVIDIA card, double-check that "pcbsd-meta-nvidia" is installed in :ref:`AppCafe®` and install it if it is not. To check for this 
     1308   driver, check the "Raw Packages" box in "Browser View" and search for "nvidia".  
    13631309 
    13641310If you click this icon in Control Panel, you will receive the message shown in Figure 8.11a.  
    13651311 
    1366 Figure 8.11a: Display Wizard Will Run at Next Boot 
    1367  
    1368 .. image:: images/picture_218.png 
    1369  
    1370 Select “Yes” which will prompt for your password. 
    1371 You should then save your work and reboot the system. 
    1372  
    1373  
    1374 Alternately, you can use the boot menu to start the display wizard. 
    1375 As soon as the system starts to boot, press the left Shift button to access the GRUB boot menu. 
    1376 Unless you are dual booting or have configured boot environments, there will be one entry named “PC-BSD (default)” in the boot menu. 
    1377 Press enter and select “Run the Display Wizard” from the menu. 
    1378  
    1379  
    1380 Regardless of whether you started the Display Wizard from Control Panel or from the boot menu, it will finish booting the system and then prompt you to confirm the resolution if it finds an optimal one. 
    1381 To configure a different resolution, click “No” to access the display wizard, shown in Figure 8.11b.  
    1382  
    1383 This screen can be used to select the desired screen resolution, color depth, and video driver. 
    1384 If you select the “vesa” driver, it will always work but will provide sub-optimal performance. 
    1385 Click on the drop-down menu to select the driver that most closely matches your video card name. 
    1386  
    1387  
    1388 You can also use the drop-down menus to change the screen resolution and color depth values. 
    1389 If the value you desire is not listed, it may be that the selected driver does not support that resolution or depth. 
    1390  
    1391  
    1392 Advanced users can select their monitor's horizontal sync and vertical refresh rate in the “Advanced” tab, seen in Figure 8.11c. 
    1393  
    1394 **Figure 8.1****1****b: Display Settings Wizard**  
    1395  
    1396 .. image:: images/picture_11.png 
    1397  
    1398 Figure 8.11c: Advanced Tab of Display Settings 
    1399  
    1400 .. image:: images/picture_19.png 
    1401  
    1402 Use caution and refer to your monitor's documentation if you make any changes here. 
    1403 If you are not sure what you are doing, leave the default values as-is. 
    1404  
    1405  
    1406 If your computer is connected to two monitors, check the box “Enable Dual-Head support”.  
    1407  
    1408 When you are finished, click the “Apply” button for your settings to be tested. 
    1409 If anything goes wrong during testing, you should be taken back to the “Display Settings” screen so that you can try another setting. 
    1410 Once you are satisfied with the settings, click “Yes” when prompted to accept them. 
    1411  
    1412  
     1312**Figure 8.11a: Display Wizard Will Run at Next Boot** 
     1313 
     1314.. image:: images/display2.png 
     1315 
     1316Select "Yes" which will prompt for your password. You should then save your work and reboot the system. 
     1317 
     1318Alternately, you can use the boot menu to start the display wizard. As soon as the system starts to boot, press the left :kbd:`Shift` button to access the 
     1319GRUB boot menu. Unless you are dual booting or have configured boot environments, there will be one entry named "PC-BSD (default)" in the boot menu. Press 
     1320:kbd:`Enter` and select "Run the Display Wizard" from the menu. 
     1321 
     1322Regardless of whether you started the Display Wizard from Control Panel or from the boot menu, it will finish booting the system and then prompt you to 
     1323confirm the resolution if it finds an optimal one. To configure a different resolution, click "No" to access the display wizard, shown in Figure 8.11b.  
     1324 
     1325**Figure 8.11b: Display Settings Wizard**  
     1326 
     1327.. image:: images/display3.png 
     1328 
     1329This screen can be used to select the desired screen resolution, color depth, and video driver. If you select the "vesa" driver, it will always work but will 
     1330provide sub-optimal performance. Click on the drop-down menu to select the driver that most closely matches your video card name. 
     1331 
     1332You can also use the drop-down menus to change the screen resolution and color depth values. If the value you desire is not listed, it may be that the 
     1333selected driver does not support that resolution or depth. 
     1334 
     1335Advanced users can select their monitor's horizontal sync and vertical refresh rate in the "Advanced" tab, seen in Figure 8.11c. 
     1336 
     1337**Figure 8.11c: Advanced Tab of Display Settings** 
     1338 
     1339.. image:: images/display4.png 
     1340 
     1341Use caution and refer to your monitor's documentation if you make any changes here. If you are not sure what you are doing, leave the default values as-is. 
     1342 
     1343If your computer is connected to two monitors, check the box "Enable Dual-Head support".  
     1344 
     1345When you are finished, click the "Apply" button for your settings to be tested. If anything goes wrong during testing, you should be taken back to the 
     1346"Display Settings" screen so that you can try another setting. Once you are satisfied with the settings, click "Yes" when prompted to accept them. 
     1347 
     1348.. index:: compositing 
     1349.. _Desktop Effects and Compositing: 
    14131350 
    14141351Desktop Effects and Compositing  
     
    14181355You can change this default if your video card supports desktop effects. 
    14191356 
    1420  
    1421 To enable desktop effects while logged into KDE, click Favorites ➜ System Settings ➜ Desktop Effects to access the configuration screen shown in Figure 8.11d. Check the box “Enable desktop effects at startup”. You can use the “All Effects” tab to get more information about each possible effect and to enable the effects that interest you. 
    1422  
    1423 Figure 8.11d: Enabling Desktop Effects in KDE 
    1424  
    1425 .. image:: images/picture_254.png 
    1426  
    1427 To enable display compositing while logged into XFCE, go to Settings ➜ Window Manager Tweaks ➜ Compositor. 
    1428 In the screen shown in Figure 8.11e, check the “Enable display compositing” box to enable the compositing options. 
    1429  
    1430  
    1431 **Figure 8.1****1****e: Enabling Compositing in XFCE**  
    1432  
    1433 .. image:: images/picture_190.png 
    1434  
    1435  
    1436 Troubleshooting  
     1357To enable desktop effects while logged into KDE, click :menuselection:`Favorites --> System Settings --> Desktop Effects` to access the configuration screen 
     1358shown in Figure 8.11d. Check the box "Enable desktop effects at startup". You can use the "All Effects" tab to get more information about each possible 
     1359effect and to enable the effects that interest you. 
     1360 
     1361**Figure 8.11d: Enabling Desktop Effects in KDE** 
     1362 
     1363.. image:: images/display5.png 
     1364 
     1365To enable display compositing while logged into XFCE, go to :menuselection:`Settings --> Window Manager Tweaks --> Compositor`. In the screen shown in Figure 
     13668.11e, check the "Enable display compositing" box to enable the compositing options. 
     1367 
     1368**Figure 8.11e: Enabling Compositing in XFCE**  
     1369 
     1370.. image:: images/display6.png 
     1371 
     1372.. index:: troubleshooting 
     1373.. _Display Troubleshooting: 
     1374 
     1375Display Troubleshooting  
    14371376---------------- 
    14381377 
    1439 If you are having problems with your display settings and would like to manually edit */etc/X11/xorg.conf* or run **Xorg --config**, first tell the PC-BSD® system to not automatically start X. To do so, add this temporary line to */etc/rc.conf*, then reboot the system: 
    1440  
    1441 pcdm_enable=”NO” 
    1442  
    1443 The system will reboot to a login prompt. 
    1444 After logging in, try the instructions in the  to manually configure and test Xorg. 
    1445 Once you have a configuration that works for you, save it to */etc/X11/xorg.conf. 
    1446 *Then, remove that temporary line from */etc/rc.conf* and start PCDM: 
    1447  
    1448 service pcdm start 
    1449  
    1450 If your graphics white-out after a suspend or resume, try running this command as the superuser:  
    1451  
    1452 sysctl hw.acpi.reset_video=1 
    1453  
    1454 If that fixes the problem, carefully add this line to */etc/sysctl.conf*:  
    1455  
    1456 hw.acpi.reset_video=1 
    1457  
    1458 If the monitor goes blank and does not come back, try running this command as your regular user account:  
    1459  
    1460 xset -dpms 
    1461  
    1462 If that fixes the problem, add that line to the *.xprofile* file in your home directory. 
    1463  
    1464  
     1378If you are having problems with your display settings and would like to manually edit :file:`/etc/X11/xorg.conf` or run :command:`Xorg --config`, first tell 
     1379the PC-BSD® system to not automatically start X. To do so, add this temporary line to :file:`/etc/rc.conf`, then reboot the system:: 
     1380 
     1381 pcdm_enable="NO" 
     1382 
     1383The system will reboot to a login prompt. After logging in, try the instructions in the 
     1384`FreeBSD Handbook <http://www.freebsd.org/doc//books/handbook/x-config.html>`_ to manually configure and test Xorg. Once you have a configuration that works 
     1385for you, save it to :file:`/etc/X11/xorg.conf`. Then, remove that temporary line from :file:`/etc/rc.conf` and start PCDM:: 
     1386 
     1387 service pcdm start 
     1388 
     1389If your graphics white-out after a suspend or resume, try running this command as the superuser:: 
     1390 
     1391 sysctl hw.acpi.reset_video=1 
     1392 
     1393If that fixes the problem, carefully add this line to :file:`/etc/sysctl.conf`:: 
     1394 
     1395 hw.acpi.reset_video=1 
     1396 
     1397If the monitor goes blank and does not come back, try running this command as your regular user account:: 
     1398 
     1399 xset -dpms 
     1400 
     1401If that fixes the problem, add that line to the :file:`.xprofile` file in your home directory. 
     1402 
     1403.. index:: mount 
     1404.. _Mount Tray: 
    14651405 
    14661406Mount Tray 
    14671407========== 
    14681408 
    1469 The Mount Tray graphical application is used to facilitate the mounting and unmounting of filesystems on internal disks USB storage devices, and optical media. 
    1470 It is included in the system tray, meaning that in can be used within any window manager that provides a system tray. 
    1471 If you remove the icon from the system tray, you can re-add it using Control Panel ➜ Mount Tray or by typing **pc-mounttray &**. 
    1472  
    1473  
    1474 NOTE: if you prefer to mount devices from the command line, see the section on .  
    1475  
    1476 In the example shown in Figure 8.12a, a USB device and a music CD are currently inserted and the user has clicked “More Options” to view the available options. 
    1477  
    1478 Figure 8.12a: Mount Tray Example 
    1479  
    1480 .. image:: images/picture_46.png 
    1481  
    1482 When you first insert a USB drive, a “New Device” message should appear in the system tray. 
    1483 If you click Mount Tray and the filesystem on the device is recognized, it will automatically mount and the contents of the device will be displayed in the default file manager for the desktop. 
    1484 Alternately, right-click Mount Tray and click the “Mount” button to mount the device and its contents. 
    1485 A list of available file managers can be found  and  lists which filesystems are supported by Mount Tray. 
    1486 If the filesystem is not recognized, a “?” will appear next to the device. 
    1487 When the device is mounted, its “Mount” button changes to “Eject”. When you are finished using the device, press this “Eject” button and wait for the message indicating that it is safe to remove the device before physically removing the device. 
    1488 Note that you will receive a “Device Busy” message if the file manager is still open with the device's contents. 
    1489 If you receive this message, press “No” to close it, close the file manager, then press “Eject” again. 
    1490 This will ensure that the device is cleanly unmounted. 
    1491  
    1492 **NOTE:** while Mount Tray will allow you to physically remove a USB device without unmounting it first, it is recommended to always “Eject” the drive first. 
    1493  
    1494  
    1495 When you first insert an optical media, such as a music CD or DVD video, a message will indicate that an optical disk is available and the  application will open so that you can play the contents of the disk. 
    1496  
    1497  
    1498 The following options are available in the “More Options” menu:  
    1499  
    1500 - **Open Media Directory:** click this if the default file manager does not automatically open. 
    1501   If the desktop does not provide a default file manager, Mount Tray will provide an “open with” dialogue so that you can select the utility to use to browse the contents of the USB device. 
    1502    
    1503  
    1504 - **View Disk Usage:** in the example shown in Figure 8.12b, a UFS formatted USB device is mounted at */**usr/home/dru/M**edia/**STECH-1d*. 
    1505   The amount of disk space used by the system hard drive and the USB drive is shown in both GB and as a percentage of available disk space. 
    1506   The mount tray will turn yellow if disk space is over 70% and red if disk space is over 90%. If the internal disk drives are partitioned with any other filesystems, these will also appear in Mount Tray. 
    1507    
    1508  
    1509 - **Rescan Devices:** click this option if an entry for the USB device does not automatically appear. 
    1510    
    1511  
    1512 - **Load ISO File:** used to mount an ISO to a memory disk. 
    1513   It will prompt for your password then open a browse menu so that you can browse to the location of the *.iso* file. 
    1514   Once the file is selected and mounted, its contents will be displayed in the default file manager. 
    1515   When you are finished browsing the contents, close the file manager and click the “Eject” button for the memory device in Mount Tray and enter your password when prompted. 
    1516   As the ISO is unmounted, the memory disk is also detached from the system. 
    1517    
    1518  
    1519 - **Change Settings:** as seen in Figure 8.12c, this screen allows you to configure how often Mount Tray checks the disk space used by mounted devices. 
    1520   Leave the checkbox checked if you would like it to automatically check disk space when a disk is mounted. 
    1521    
     1409The Mount Tray graphical application is used to facilitate the mounting and unmounting of filesystems on internal disks USB storage devices, and optical 
     1410media. It is included in the system tray, meaning that in can be used within any window manager that provides a system tray. If you remove the icon from the 
     1411system tray, you can re-add it using :menuselection:`Control Panel --> Mount Tray` or by typing :command:`pc-mounttray &`. 
     1412 
     1413.. note:: if you prefer to mount devices from the command line, see the section on :ref:`pc-sysconfig`.  
     1414 
     1415In the example shown in Figure 8.12a, a USB device and a music CD are currently inserted and the user has clicked "More Options" to view the available 
     1416options. 
     1417 
     1418**Figure 8.12a: Mount Tray Example** 
     1419 
     1420.. image:: images/mount1.png 
     1421 
     1422When you first insert a USB drive, a "New Device" message should appear in the system tray. If you click Mount Tray and the filesystem on the device is 
     1423recognized, it will automatically mount and the contents of the device will be displayed in the default file manager for the desktop. Alternately, right-click 
     1424Mount Tray and click the "Mount" button to mount the device and its contents. A list of available file managers can be found in 
     1425:ref:`File Managers and File Structure` and :ref:`Filesystems` lists which filesystems are supported by Mount Tray. If the filesystem is not recognized, a 
     1426*?* will appear next to the device. When the device is mounted, its "Mount" button changes to "Eject". When you are finished using the device, press this 
     1427"Eject" button and wait for the message indicating that it is safe to remove the device before physically removing the device. Note that you will receive a 
     1428"Device Busy" message if the file manager is still open with the device's contents. If you receive this message, press "No" to close it, close the file 
     1429manager, then press "Eject" again. This will ensure that the device is cleanly unmounted. 
     1430 
     1431.. note:: while Mount Tray will allow you to physically remove a USB device without unmounting it first, it is recommended to always "Eject" the drive first. 
     1432 
     1433When you first insert an optical media, such as a music CD or DVD video, a message will indicate that an optical disk is available and the  application will 
     1434open so that you can play the contents of the disk. 
     1435 
     1436The following options are available in the "More Options" menu:  
     1437 
     1438* **Open Media Directory:** click this if the default file manager does not automatically open. If the desktop does not provide a default file manager, Mount 
     1439  Tray will provide an "open with" dialogue so that you can select the utility to use to browse the contents of the USB device. 
     1440 
     1441* **View Disk Usage:** in the example shown in Figure 8.12b, a UFS formatted USB device is mounted at :file:`/usr/home/dru/Media/STECH-1d`. The amount of disk 
     1442  space used by the system hard drive and the USB drive is shown in both GB and as a percentage of available disk space. The Mount Tray will turn yellow if 
     1443  disk space is over 70% and red if disk space is over 90%. If the internal disk drives are partitioned with any other filesystems, these will also appear in 
     1444  Mount Tray. 
     1445 
     1446* **Rescan Devices:** click this option if an entry for the USB device does not automatically appear. 
     1447 
     1448* **Load ISO File:** used to mount an ISO to a memory disk. It will prompt for your password then open a browse menu so that you can browse to the location of 
     1449  the :file:`.iso` file. Once the file is selected and mounted, its contents will be displayed in the default file manager. When you are finished browsing the 
     1450  contents, close the file manager and click the "Eject" button for the memory device in Mount Tray and enter your password when prompted. As the ISO is 
     1451  unmounted, the memory disk is also detached from the system. 
     1452 
     1453* **Change Settings:** as seen in Figure 8.12c, this screen allows you to configure how often Mount Tray checks the disk space used by mounted devices. Leave 
     1454  the checkbox checked if you would like it to automatically check disk space when a disk is mounted. 
    15221455 
    15231456- **Close Tray:** click this option to remove Mount Tray from the system tray. 
    1524    
    1525  
    1526 Figure 8.12b: View Disk Usage Using Mount Tray 
    1527  
    1528 .. image:: images/picture_276.png 
    1529  
    1530 **Figure 8.1****2****c: Configure Disk Space Check**  
    1531  
    1532 .. image:: images/picture_22.png 
    1533  
     1457 
     1458**Figure 8.12b: View Disk Usage Using Mount Tray** 
     1459 
     1460.. image:: images/mount2.png 
     1461 
     1462**Figure 8.12c: Configure Disk Space Check**  
     1463 
     1464.. image:: images/mount3.png 
     1465 
     1466.. index:: mount 
     1467.. _pc-sysconfig: 
    15341468 
    15351469pc-sysconfig 
    15361470------------ 
    15371471 
    1538 The previous section described PC-BSD®'s graphical mount utility. 
    1539 This graphical utility has a command-line backend, **pc-sysconfig**, which can be used directly from the command line on TrueOS® systems, window managers without a system tray, or by users who prefer to use the command line. 
    1540  
    1541  
    1542 For usage information, run the command without any options:  
    1543  
    1544 pc-sysconfig 
    1545  
    1546 pc-sysconfig: Simple system configuration utility 
    1547  
    1548 Usage: "pc-sysconfig <command 1> <command 2> ..." 
    1549  
    1550 Available Information Commands: 
    1551  
    1552 "list-remdev": List all removable devices attached to the system. 
    1553  
    1554 "list-mounteddev": List all removable devices that are currently mounted 
    1555  
    1556 "supportedfilesystems": List all the filesystems that are currently detected/supported by pc-sysconfig 
    1557  
    1558 "devinfo <device> [skiplabel]": Fetch device information (Filesystem, Label, Type) 
    1559  
    1560 "devsize <device>": Fetch device space (must be mounted) 
    1561  
    1562 Available Action Commands: 
    1563  
    1564 "mount <device> [<filesystem>] [<mountpoint>]": 
    1565  
    1566 -- This will mount the removable device on the system (with user-accessible permissions if the mountpoint needs to be created) 
    1567  
    1568 -- If there is no filesystem set (or "auto" is used), it will try to use the one that is auto-detected for the device 
    1569  
    1570 -- If there is no mountpoint set, it will assign a new mountpoint within the "/media/" directory based on the device label 
    1571  
    1572 "unmount <device or mountpoint> [force]": 
    1573  
    1574 -- This will unmount the removable device from the system 
    1575  
    1576 -- This may be forced by using the "force" flag as well (not recommended for all cases) 
    1577  
    1578 -- If the input device is a memory disk (/dev/md*), then it will automatically remove the memory disk from the system as well 
    1579  
    1580 "load-iso<absolute path to the *.iso file>": 
    1581  
    1582 -- This will load the ISO file as a memory disk on the system (making it available for mounting/browsing)}} 
    1583  
    1584 For example, to see a listed of the supported filesystems, use:  
    1585  
    1586 pc-sysconfig supportedfilesystems 
    1587  
    1588 FAT, NTFS, EXT, EXT4, CD9660, UFS, REISERFS, XFS, UDF 
    1589  
     1472The previous section described PC-BSD®'s graphical mount utility. This graphical utility has a command-line backend, :command:`pc-sysconfig`, which can be 
     1473used directly from the command line on TrueOS® systems, window managers without a system tray, or by users who prefer to use the command line. 
     1474 
     1475For usage information, run the command without any options:: 
     1476 
     1477 pc-sysconfig 
     1478 pc-sysconfig: Simple system configuration utility 
     1479 Usage: "pc-sysconfig <command 1> <command 2> ..." 
     1480  
     1481 Available Information Commands: 
     1482 "list-remdev": List all removable devices attached to the system. 
     1483 "list-mounteddev": List all removable devices that are currently mounted 
     1484 "supportedfilesystems": List all the filesystems that are currently detected/supported by pc-sysconfig 
     1485 "devinfo <device> [skiplabel]": Fetch device information (Filesystem, Label, Type) 
     1486 "devsize <device>": Fetch device space (must be mounted) 
     1487 
     1488 Available Action Commands: 
     1489 "mount <device> [<filesystem>] [<mountpoint>]": 
     1490 -- This will mount the removable device on the system (with user-accessible permissions if the mountpoint needs to be created) 
     1491 -- If there is no filesystem set (or "auto" is used), it will try to use the one that is auto-detected for the device 
     1492 -- If there is no mountpoint set, it will assign a new mountpoint within the "/media/" directory based on the device label 
     1493  
     1494 "unmount <device or mountpoint> [force]": 
     1495 -- This will unmount the removable device from the system 
     1496 -- This may be forced by using the "force" flag as well (not recommended for all cases) 
     1497 -- If the input device is a memory disk (/dev/md*), then it will automatically remove the memory disk from the system as well 
     1498 
     1499 "load-iso<absolute path to the *.iso file>": 
     1500 -- This will load the ISO file as a memory disk on the system (making it available for mounting/browsing)}} 
     1501 
     1502For example, to see a listed of the supported filesystems, use:: 
     1503 
     1504 pc-sysconfig supportedfilesystems 
     1505 FAT, NTFS, EXT, EXT4, CD9660, UFS, REISERFS, XFS, UDF 
     1506 
     1507.. index:: keyboard 
     1508.. _PC-BSD Keyboard Settings: 
    15901509 
    15911510PC-BSD Keyboard Settings 
    15921511======================== 
    15931512 
    1594 Beginning with version 10.1.1, PC-BSD® includes a graphical utility for managing the keyboard's layout settings. 
    1595 To start the application, double-click its icon in Control Panel or type **pc-syskeyboard** at the command line. 
    1596 A screenshot of this utility is seen in Figure 8.13a.  
    1597  
    1598 Figure 8.13a: Configuring Keyboard Settings 
    1599  
    1600 .. image:: images/picture_262.png 
    1601  
     1513Beginning with version 10.1.1, PC-BSD® includes a graphical utility for managing the keyboard's layout settings. To start the application, double-click its 
     1514icon in Control Panel or type :command:`pc-syskeyboard` at the command line. A screenshot of this utility is seen in Figure 8.13a.  
     1515 
     1516**Figure 8.13a: Configuring Keyboard Settings** 
     1517 
     1518.. image:: images/keyboard1.png 
     1519 
     1520.. index:: keyboard 
     1521.. _Changing the Layout: 
    16021522 
    16031523Changing the Layout 
    16041524------------------- 
    16051525 
    1606 To add another keyboard layout, click the “+” button, which will open the screen shown in Figure 8.13b. Highlight the desired layout. 
    1607 This will activate the “Layout variant” drop-down menu where you can select to either use the “Typical” variant or a specific variant. 
    1608 Press “OK” to add the configured layout. 
    1609  
    1610  
    1611 Figure 8.13b: Adding Another Layout 
    1612  
    1613 .. image:: images/picture_62.png 
    1614  
    1615 To edit an existing layout, highlight it then click the icon that looks like a pencil. 
    1616 You can then either change the “Layout variant” for that layout or select a different layout entirely. 
    1617 Selecting a different layout will replace the current layout. 
    1618  
    1619  
    1620 If you there are multiple layout entries defined in the “Keyboard layouts” screen, you can delete a layout by highlighting it and clicking the “-” icon. 
    1621 Note that this icon is greyed out when there is only one entry as at least one keyboard layout must be defined. 
    1622  
    1623  
    1624 After creating or editing a layout, you can test it by typing some text into the “Test here” field. 
    1625  
    1626  
     1526To add another keyboard layout, click the "+" button, which will open the screen shown in Figure 8.13b. Highlight the desired layout. This will activate the 
     1527"Layout variant" drop-down menu where you can select to either use the "Typical" variant or a specific variant. Press "OK" to add the configured layout. 
     1528 
     1529**Figure 8.13b: Adding Another Layout** 
     1530 
     1531.. image:: images/keyboard2.png 
     1532 
     1533To edit an existing layout, highlight it then click the icon that looks like a pencil. You can then either change the "Layout variant" for that layout or 
     1534select a different layout entirely. Selecting a different layout will replace the current layout. 
     1535 
     1536If you there are multiple layout entries defined in the "Keyboard layouts" screen, you can delete a layout by highlighting it and clicking the "-" icon. Note 
     1537that this icon is greyed out when there is only one entry as at least one keyboard layout must be defined. 
     1538 
     1539After creating or editing a layout, you can test it by typing some text into the "Test here" field. 
     1540 
     1541.. index:: keyboard 
     1542.. _Configuring Layout Switch Keys: 
    16271543 
    16281544Configuring Layout Switch Keys 
    16291545------------------------------ 
    16301546 
    1631 To configure keyboard shortcuts, click the “Options” tab. 
    1632 As seen in Figure 8.13c, the default view is used to set the keyboard layout switch keys. 
    1633  
    1634  
    1635 Figure 8.13c: Configuring Layout Switch Keys 
    1636  
    1637 .. image:: images/picture_211.png 
    1638  
    1639 If you wish to set the keys for terminating the graphical session, check the box “Ctrl+Alt+Backspace terminates xorg”.  
    1640  
    1641 To configure many more keyboard shortcuts, click the “Advanced view” button which will open the screen shown in Figure 8.13d. In this example, several categories have been expanded to show their options. 
    1642 To enable an option, check its box. 
    1643  
    1644  
    1645 Figure 8.13d: Configuring Keyboard Shortcuts 
    1646  
    1647 .. image:: images/picture_18.png 
    1648  
     1547To configure keyboard shortcuts, click the "Options" tab. As seen in Figure 8.13c, the default view is used to set the keyboard layout switch keys. 
     1548 
     1549**Figure 8.13c: Configuring Layout Switch Keys** 
     1550 
     1551.. image:: images/keyboard3.png 
     1552 
     1553If you wish to set the keys for terminating the graphical session, check the box "Ctrl+Alt+Backspace terminates xorg".  
     1554 
     1555To configure many more keyboard shortcuts, click the "Advanced view" button which will open the screen shown in Figure 8.13d. In this example, several 
     1556categories have been expanded to show their options. To enable an option, check its box. 
     1557 
     1558**Figure 8.13d: Configuring Keyboard Shortcuts** 
     1559 
     1560.. image:: images/keyboard4.png 
     1561 
     1562.. index:: printing 
     1563.. _Printing: 
    16491564 
    16501565Printing 
    16511566======== 
    16521567 
    1653 Like many open source operating systems, PC-BSD® uses the Common Unix Printing System () to manage printing. 
    1654 Control Panel provides a graphical front-end for adding and managing printers. 
    1655  
    1656  
    1657 While the graphical utility is easy to use, it may or may not automatically detect your printer depending upon how well your printer is supported by an open source print driver. 
    1658 This section will walk you through a sample configuration for a HP Officejet 4500 printer. 
    1659 Your printer may “just work”, allowing you to breeze through the configuration screens. 
    1660 If your printer configuration does not work, read this section more closely for hints on how to locate the correct driver for your printer. 
    1661  
    1662  
     1568Like many open source operating systems, PC-BSD® uses the Common Unix Printing System (`CUPS <http://cups.org/>`_) to manage printing. Control Panel provides 
     1569a graphical front-end for adding and managing printers. 
     1570 
     1571While the graphical utility is easy to use, it may or may not automatically detect your printer depending upon how well your printer is supported by an open 
     1572source print driver. This section will walk you through a sample configuration for a HP Officejet 4500 printer. Your printer may "just work", allowing you to 
     1573breeze through the configuration screens. If your printer configuration does not work, read this section more closely for hints on how to locate the correct 
     1574driver for your printer. 
     1575 
     1576.. index:: printing 
     1577.. _Researching Your Printer: 
    16631578 
    16641579Researching your Printer  
    16651580------------------------- 
    16661581 
    1667 Before configuring your printer, it is worth the time to see if a print driver exists for your particular model, and if so, which driver is recommended. 
    1668 If you are planning to purchase a printer, this is definitely good information to know beforehand. 
    1669 You can look up the vendor and model of the printer in the  which will indicate if the model is supported and if there are any known caveats with the print driver. 
    1670  
    1671  
    1672 Figure 8.14a shows a search for our example printer. 
    1673 There are two models in this series and this particular hardware supports wireless. 
    1674  
    1675  
    1676 **Figure 8.1****4****a: Using Open Printing Database to Locate a Driver**  
    1677  
    1678 .. image:: images/picture_205.png 
    1679  
    1680 Once the model is selected, click on the “Show this printer” button to see the results, as demonstrated in Figure 8.14b.  
    1681  
    1682 Figure 8.14b: Driver Recommendation from Open Printing Database 
    1683  
    1684 .. image:: images/picture_67.png 
    1685  
    1686 For this model, the HPLIP driver is recommended. 
    1687 In PC-BSD®, the HPLIP driver is available as an optional system component called “pcbsd-meta-hplip”. You can see if the driver is installed, and install it if it is not, using AppCafe®. In order to see the driver shown in Figure 8.14c, make sure that the “Raw Packages” box is checked in the “Browser View” menu. 
    1688  
    1689 **Figure 8.1****4****c: Installing the HPLIP Driver**  
    1690  
    1691 .. image:: images/picture_170.png 
    1692  
     1582Before configuring your printer, it is worth the time to see if a print driver exists for your particular model, and if so, which driver is recommended. If 
     1583you are planning to purchase a printer, this is definitely good information to know beforehand. You can look up the vendor and model of the printer in the 
     1584`Open Printing Database <http://www.openprinting.org/printers>`_ which will indicate if the model is supported and if there are any known caveats with the 
     1585print driver. 
     1586 
     1587Figure 8.14a shows a search for our example printer. There are two models in this series and this particular hardware supports wireless. 
     1588 
     1589**Figure 8.14a: Using Open Printing Database to Locate a Driver**  
     1590 
     1591.. image:: images/print1.png 
     1592 
     1593Once the model is selected, click on the "Show this printer" button to see the results, as demonstrated in Figure 8.14b.  
     1594 
     1595**Figure 8.14b: Driver Recommendation from Open Printing Database** 
     1596 
     1597.. image:: images/print2.png 
     1598 
     1599For this model, the HPLIP driver is recommended. In PC-BSD®, the HPLIP driver is available as an optional system component called "pcbsd-meta-hplip". You can 
     1600see if the driver is installed, and install it if it is not, using :ref:`AppCafe®`. In order to see the driver shown in Figure 8.14c, make sure that the 
     1601"Raw Packages` box is checked in the "Browser View" menu. 
     1602 
     1603**Figure 8.14c: Installing the HPLIP Driver**  
     1604 
     1605.. image:: images/print3.png 
     1606 
     1607.. index:: printing 
     1608.. _Adding a Printer: 
    16931609 
    16941610Adding a Printer  
    16951611----------------- 
    16961612 
    1697 Once you know that your printer is supported, make sure that the printer is plugged into your computer or, if the printer is a network printer, that both your computer and the printer are connected to the network. 
    1698 Then, go to Control Panel ➜ Printing or type **pc-su ****pc-cupscfg**. 
    1699 Input your password to see a window similar to Figure 8.14d.  
    1700  
    1701 **Figure 8.1****4****d: Printer Configuration Utility**  
    1702  
    1703 .. image:: images/picture_128.png 
    1704  
    1705 To add a new printer, click the “+Add” button. 
    1706 The printing utility will pause for a few seconds as as the wizard searches to see if any printers are connected to your computer or network. 
    1707 When it is finished, you should see a screen similar to Figure 8.14e.  
    1708  
    1709 **Figure 8.1****4****e: Select a Print Device**  
    1710  
    1711 .. image:: images/picture_174.png 
    1712  
    1713 In this example, the wizard has found this printer and highlighted the entry for the HP OfficeJet 4500. To also install the fax capability, instead select the driver which includes “HP Fax”. The wizard should find any supported printer that is attached to the computer or network and list it as the highlighted entry in the “Devices” frame. 
    1714 Click “Forward” and the wizard will attempt to load the correct driver for the device. 
    1715 If it is successful, it will display the screen shown in Figure 8.14f. If it does not automatically find your printer, read the section on . 
    1716  
    1717 Figure 8.14f: Describe Printer Screen 
    1718  
    1719 .. image:: images/picture_230.png 
    1720  
    1721 Since the configuration wizard found this printer, the “Describe Printer” screen automatically fills out the printer model series, a description, and the hostname of your computer, if the printer is locally attached, or the hostname of the network printer. 
    1722 If you wish, you can change the printer's name or description. 
    1723 Once you click the “Apply” button, the wizard will ask if you would like to print a test page. 
    1724 Ensure the printer has paper and click Yes to print the test page. 
    1725 If you can not print a successful test page, see the  section. 
    1726  
    1727  
    1728 Once the printer is created, a screen will open where you can set the properties of the printer. 
    1729 Our sample printer's properties screen is shown in Figure 8.14g. 
    1730  
    1731 Figure 8.14g: Viewing the Settings of the Newly Created Printer 
    1732  
    1733 .. image:: images/picture_123.png 
    1734  
    1735 You may wish to take a few minutes to review the settings in “Policies”, “Access Control”, “Printer Options”, and “Job Options” tabs as these allow you to configure options such as print banners, permissions, the default paper size, and double-sided printing. 
    1736 The available settings will vary, depending upon the capabilities of the print driver. 
    1737  
    1738  
     1613Once you know that your printer is supported, make sure that the printer is plugged into your computer or, if the printer is a network printer, that both your 
     1614computer and the printer are connected to the network. Then, go to :menuselection`Control Panel --> Printing` or type :command:`pc-su pc-cupscfg`. Input your 
     1615password to see a window similar to Figure 8.14d.  
     1616 
     1617**Figure 8.14d: Printer Configuration Utility**  
     1618 
     1619.. image:: images/print4.png 
     1620 
     1621To add a new printer, click the "+Add" button. The printing utility will pause for a few seconds as as the wizard searches to see if any printers are 
     1622connected to your computer or network. When it is finished, you should see a screen similar to Figure 8.14e.  
     1623 
     1624**Figure 8.14e: Select a Print Device**  
     1625 
     1626.. image:: images/print5.png 
     1627 
     1628In this example, the wizard has found this printer and highlighted the entry for the HP OfficeJet 4500. To also install the fax capability, instead select the 
     1629driver which includes "HP Fax". The wizard should find any supported printer that is attached to the computer or network and list it as the highlighted entry 
     1630in the "Devices" frame. Click "Forward" and the wizard will attempt to load the correct driver for the device. If it is successful, it will display the screen 
     1631shown in Figure 8.14f. If it does not automatically find your printer, read the section on :ref:`Printer Troubleshooting`. 
     1632 
     1633**Figure 8.14f: Describe Printer Screen** 
     1634 
     1635.. image:: images/print6.png 
     1636 
     1637Since the configuration wizard found this printer, the "Describe Printer" screen automatically fills out the printer model series, a description, and the 
     1638hostname of your computer, if the printer is locally attached, or the hostname of the network printer. If you wish, you can change the printer's name or 
     1639description. Once you click the "Apply" button, the wizard will ask if you would like to print a test page. Ensure the printer has paper and click "Yes" to 
     1640print the test page. If you can not print a successful test page, see the :ref:`Printer Troubleshooting` section. 
     1641 
     1642Once the printer is created, a screen will open where you can set the properties of the printer. Our sample printer's properties screen is shown in Figure 
     16438.14g. 
     1644 
     1645**Figure 8.14g: Viewing the Settings of the Newly Created Printer** 
     1646 
     1647.. image:: images/print7.png 
     1648 
     1649You may wish to take a few minutes to review the settings in "Policies", "Access Control", "Printer Options", and "Job Options" tabs as these allow you to 
     1650configure options such as print banners, permissions, the default paper size, and double-sided printing. The available settings will vary, depending upon the 
     1651capabilities of the print driver. 
     1652 
     1653.. index:: printing 
     1654.. _Manually Adding a Driver: 
    17391655 
    17401656Manually Adding a Driver  
    17411657------------------------- 
    17421658 
    1743 If the print configuration wizard fails, double-check that the printer is supported as described in the  section and that HPLIP is installed if it is a HP printer. 
    1744 Also check that the printer is plugged in and powered on. 
    1745  
    1746  
    1747 If the wizard is unable to even detect the device, try to manually add the print device. 
    1748 In the “Select Device” screen (Figure 8.14e) you will need to highlight and configure the type of connection to the printer:  
    1749  
    1750 **USB:** this entry will only appear if a printer is plugged into a USB port and the number of entries will vary depending upon the number of USB ports on the system. 
    1751 If there are multiple USB entries, highlight the one that represents the USB port your printer is plugged into. 
    1752  
    1753  
    1754 **Enter URI****:** this option allows you to manually type in the URI to the printer. 
    1755 A list of possible URIs is available on the .  
    1756  
    1757 **AppSocket/HP JetDirect:** select this option if you are connecting to an HP network printer. 
    1758 You will need to input the IP address of the printer in the “Host” field. 
    1759 Only change the port number if the printer is using a port other than the default of 9100.  
    1760  
    1761 **IPP:** select this option if you are connecting to a printer cabled to another computer (typically running a Microsoft operating system) that is sharing the printer using IPP. 
    1762 You will need to input the IP address of the printer in the “Host” field and the name of the print queue. 
    1763 You can then click the “Verify” button to ensure that you can connect to the print queue. 
    1764  
    1765  
    1766 **LPD/LPR:** select this option if you are connecting to a printer which is cabled to a Unix computer that is using LPD to share the printer. 
    1767 You will need to select the hostname and queue name from the drop-down menus. 
    1768  
    1769  
    1770 Once you have input the information for the type of printer, press “Forward” for the wizard to continue. 
    1771  
    1772 If the wizard is able to find the printer but is unable to locate the correct driver for the printer, it will display the screen shown in in Figure 8.14h instead of the the “Describe Printer” screen. 
    1773  
    1774  
    1775 Figure 8.14h: Manually Select the Manufacturer 
    1776  
    1777 .. image:: images/picture_88.png 
    1778  
    1779 Select the manufacturer name and then click “Forward” to select the model, as seen in the example in Figure 8.14i.  
    1780  
    1781 Figure 8.14i: Manually Select the Driver 
    1782  
    1783 .. image:: images/picture_146.png 
    1784  
    1785 Click “Forward” and the wizard should continue to the “Describe Printer” screen. 
    1786  
    1787 If the selected driver does not work, go back to the “Choose Driver” screen shown in Figure 8.14h. This screen provides two additional options for installing the driver:  
    1788  
    1789 1. **Provide PPD file:** a PostScript Printer Description (PPD) is a driver created by the manufacturer that ends in a *.ppd* extension. 
    1790    Sometimes the file will end with a *.ppd.gz* extension, indicating that it has been compressed with **gzip**. 
    1791    If the driver you need was not automatically found, see if there is a PPD file on the driver CD that came with the printer or if one is available for download from the manufacturer's website. 
    1792    If you find a PPD, select this option and browse to the location of that file. 
    1793    Then, click “Forward” to continue with the printer configuration. 
    1794  
    1795 2. **Search for a printer driver to download:** if you know the name of the driver that you are looking for, try typing its name or number into the “Search” box. 
    1796    If found, it will display in the “Printer” model drop-down menu. 
    1797     
    1798  
    1799  
    1800 Printer Troubleshooting  
    1801 ------------------------ 
     1659If the print configuration wizard fails, double-check that the printer is supported as described in :ref:`Researching your Printer` and that HPLIP is 
     1660installed if it is a HP printer. Also check that the printer is plugged in and powered on. 
     1661 
     1662If the wizard is unable to even detect the device, try to manually add the print device. In the "Select Device" screen (Figure 8.14e) you will need to 
     1663highlight and configure the type of connection to the printer:  
     1664 
     1665**USB:** this entry will only appear if a printer is plugged into a USB port and the number of entries will vary depending upon the number of USB ports on the 
     1666system. If there are multiple USB entries, highlight the one that represents the USB port your printer is plugged into. 
     1667 
     1668**Enter URI:** this option allows you to manually type in the URI to the printer. A list of possible URIs is available on the 
     1669`cups site <http://www.cups.org/documentation.php/network.html>`_.  
     1670 
     1671**AppSocket/HP JetDirect:** select this option if you are connecting to an HP network printer. You will need to input the IP address of the printer in the 
     1672"Host" field. Only change the port number if the printer is using a port other than the default of 9100.  
     1673 
     1674**IPP:** select this option if you are connecting to a printer cabled to another computer (typically running a Microsoft operating system) that is sharing the 
     1675printer using IPP. You will need to input the IP address of the printer in the "Host" field and the name of the print queue. You can then click the "Verify" 
     1676button to ensure that you can connect to the print queue. 
     1677 
     1678**LPD/LPR:** select this option if you are connecting to a printer which is cabled to a Unix computer that is using LPD to share the printer. You will need to 
     1679select the hostname and queue name from the drop-down menus. 
     1680 
     1681Once you have input the information for the type of printer, press "Forward" for the wizard to continue. 
     1682 
     1683If the wizard is able to find the printer but is unable to locate the correct driver for the printer, it will display the screen shown in in Figure 8.14h 
     1684instead of the the "Describe Printer" screen. 
     1685 
     1686**Figure 8.14h: Manually Select the Manufacturer** 
     1687 
     1688.. image:: images/print8.png 
     1689 
     1690Select the manufacturer name and then click "Forward" to select the model, as seen in the example in Figure 8.14i.  
     1691 
     1692**Figure 8.14i: Manually Select the Driver** 
     1693 
     1694.. image:: images/print9.png 
     1695 
     1696Click "Forward" and the wizard should continue to the "Describe Printer" screen. 
     1697 
     1698If the selected driver does not work, go back to the "Choose Driver" screen shown in Figure 8.14h. This screen provides two additional options for installing 
     1699the driver:  
     1700 
     17011. **Provide PPD file:** a PostScript Printer Description (PPD) is a driver created by the manufacturer that ends in a :file:`.ppd` extension. Sometimes the 
     1702   file will end with a :file:`.ppd.gz` extension, indicating that it has been compressed with :command:`gzip`. If the driver you need was not automatically 
     1703   found, see if there is a PPD file on the driver CD that came with the printer or if one is available for download from the manufacturer's website. If you 
     1704   find a PPD, select this option and browse to the location of that file. Then, click "Forward" to continue with the printer configuration. 
     1705 
     17062. **Search for a printer driver to download:** if you know the name of the driver that you are looking for, try typing its name or number into the "Search" 
     1707   box. If found, it will display in the "Printer" model drop-down menu. 
     1708 
     1709.. index:: printing 
     1710.. _Printer Troubleshooting: 
     1711 
     1712Printer Troubleshooting 
     1713----------------------- 
    18021714 
    18031715Here are some solutions to common printing problems:  
    18041716 
    1805 - **A test page prints but it is all garbled:** this typically means that you are using the wrong driver. 
    1806   If your specific model was not listed, click the “Change” button in the “Driver Details” section of the “Settings” tab of the printer and try choosing another driver model that is close to your model number. 
    1807   If trial and error does not fix the problem, see if there are any suggestions for your model in the . A web search for the word freebsd followed by the printer model name may also help you to find the correct driver to use. 
    1808    
    1809  
    1810 - **Nothing happens when you try to print:** in this case, type **tail -f /var/log/cups/error_log** in a console and then print a test page. 
    1811   The error messages should appear in the console. 
    1812   If the solution is not obvious from the error messages, try a web search for the error message. 
    1813   If you are still stuck, post the error, the model of your printer, and your version of PC-BSD® using the  tool. 
    1814  
     1717- **A test page prints but it is all garbled:** this typically means that you are using the wrong driver. If your specific model was not listed, click the 
     1718  "Change" button in the "Driver Details" section of the "Settings" tab of the printer and try choosing another driver model that is close to your model 
     1719  number. If trial and error does not fix the problem, see if there are any suggestions for your model in the 
     1720  `Open Printing database <http://www.openprinting.org/printers>`_. A web search for the word "freebsd" followed by the printer model name may also help you 
     1721  to find the correct driver to use. 
     1722 
     1723- **Nothing happens when you try to print:** in this case, type :command:`tail -f /var/log/cups/error_log` in a console and then print a test page. The error 
     1724  messages should appear in the console. If the solution is not obvious from the error messages, try a web search for the error message. If you are still 
     1725  stuck, post the error, the model of your printer, and your version of PC-BSD® using the :ref:`Report a Bug` tool. 
     1726 
     1727.. index:: scanner 
     1728.. _Scanner: 
    18151729 
    18161730Scanner 
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